In late August of 1775, Peyton Randolph left for the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia, which met from September 5, 1775 to October 26, 1775.
He was again elected President, but died on October 22, before the Congress ended, being eventually replaced by John Hancock.
Peyton Randolph was buried at the chapel of the College of William and Mary.
One of the first American naval frigates was named in his honor, the USS Randolph, and during World War II, an Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Randolph (CV-15).
Also named for him was Fort Randolph, where the Ohio River and Kanawha River meet, as well as Randolph County, North Carolina; Randolph, Massachusetts; and Randolph County, Indiana.
His home in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, was made a National Historic Landmark in 1970.