In the Spring of 1621, as recorded by Pilgrim Governor William Bradford in his Of Plymouth Plantation:
“About the 16th of March, a certain Indian came boldly amongst them and spoke to them in broken English … His name was Samoset.
… He told them also of another Indian whose name was Squanto, a native of this place, who had been in England and could speak better English than himself …”
Samoset’s initial visit to the Pilgrims was recorded in Mourt’s Relation, written by Edward Winslow and Governor William Bradford in 1622:
“Friday the 16th a fair warm day towards; this morning we determined to conclude of the military orders, which we had begun to consider of before but were interrupted by the savages, as we mentioned formerly; and whilst we were busied hereabout, we were interrupted again, for there presented himself a savage, which caused an alarm.
… He very boldly came all alone and along the houses straight to the rendezvous, where we intercepted him, not suffering him to go in, as undoubtedly he would, out of his boldness.
He saluted us in English, and bade us welcome, for he had learned some broken English among the Englishmen that came to fish at Monchiggon, and knew by name the most of the captains, commanders, and masters that usually come.
… He was a man free in speech, so far as he could express his mind, and of a seemly carriage. We questioned him of many things; he was the first savage we could meet withal.
He said he was not of these parts, but of Morattiggon, and one of the sagamores or lords thereof, and had been eight months in these parts, it lying hence a day’s sail with a great wind, and five days by land.
He discoursed of the whole country, and of every province, and of their sagamores, and their number of men, and strength.
… The wind being to rise a little, we cast a horseman’s coat about him, for he was stark naked, only a leather about his waist, with a fringe about a span long, or little more; he had a bow and two arrows, the one headed, and the other unheaded.
He was a tall straight man, the hair of his head black, long behind, only short before, none on his face at all;
he asked some beer, but we gave him strong water and biscuit, and butter, and cheese, and pudding, and a piece of mallard, all which he liked well, and had been acquainted with such amongst the English …”
Mourt’s Relation continued:
“(Samoset) told us the place where we now live is called Patuxet,
and that about four years ago all the inhabitants died of an extraordinary plague, and there is neither man, woman, nor child remaining, as indeed we have found none, so as there is none to hinder our possession, or to lay claim unto it.
All the afternoon we spent in communication with him; we would gladly have been rid of him at night, but he was not willing to go this night.
Then we thought to carry him on shipboard, wherewith he was well content, and went into the shallop (small boat), but the wind was high and the water scant, that it could not return back.
We lodged him that night at Stephen Hopkins’ house, and watched him …”
Mourt’s Relation continued:
“The next day he went away back to the Massasoits, from whence he said he came, who are our next bordering neighbors.
They are sixty strong, as he saith …
The Nausets are as near southeast of them, and are a hundred strong, and those were they of whom our people were encountered, as before related.
They are much incensed and provoked against the English, and about eight months ago slew three Englishmen,
and two more hardly escaped by flight to Monchiggon; they were Sir Ferdinando Gorges his men, as this savage told us …
… These people are ill affected towards the English, by reason of one (Thomas) Hunt, a master of a ship, who deceived the people, and got them under color of trucking (bartering) with them, twenty out of this very place where we inhabit, and seven men from Nauset,
and carried them away, and sold them for slaves like a wretched man (for twenty pound a man) that cares not what mischief he doth for his profit.
Saturday, in the morning we dismissed the savage, and gave him a knife, a bracelet, and a ring; he promised within a night or two to come again, and to bring with him some of the Massasoits, our neighbors, with such beavers’ skins as they had to truck with us.”
Governor Bradford wrote that a few days later, “Tishsquantum,” or Squanto arrived with the neighboring Wampanoag Chief Massasiot:
“Massasoyt, who about four or five days after, came with the chief of his friends and other attendants, and with Squanto.
… With him, after friendly entertainment and some gifts, they made a peace which has now continued for twenty-four years.”
Governor Bradford described Squanto:
“Squanto stayed with them and was their interpreter and was a special instrument sent of God for their good beyond their expectation.
He showed them how to plant corn, where to take fish and other commodities, and guided them to unknown places, and never left them till he died.”
“The settlers, as many as were able, then began to plant their corn, in which service Squanto stood them in good stead, showing them how to plant it and cultivate it.
… He also told them that unless they got fish to manure this exhausted old soil, it would come to nothing,
and he showed them that in the middle of April plenty of fish would come up the brook by which they had begun to build, and taught them how to catch it, and where to get other necessary provisions; all of which they found true by experience …
Nor was there a man among them who had ever seen a beaver skin till they came out, and were instructed by Squanto.”
Though records are scarce, it appears that Squanto may have been one of the five natives kidnapped around 1605 by Captain George Weymouth’s expedition.
Sailing his ship Archangel,Weymouth was employed by the newly formed British East India Company to find a Northwest Passage to India and China.
Sea voyages to find a Northwest Passage were first conceived after the Muslim Ottoman Turks had cut off the eastern land routes to India and China a century and a half earlier.
Captain George Weymouth brought the natives back to England where they were introduced to William Shakespeare and the Earl of South Hampton, who funded both Shakespeare and the voyages.
Three of the natives went to live in Plymouth, England, with Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who also funded the expedition and later, the settlement of Maine.
In A Briefe Narration of the Originall Undertakings for the Advancement of Plantations into the Parts of America (London: 1658), Sir Ferdinando Gorges mentioned the name “Tasquantum’:
“(Captain George Weymouth, having failed at finding a Northwest Passage) happened into a River on the Coast of America, called Pemmaquid, from whence he brought five of the Natives, three of whose names were Manida, Sellwarroes, and Tasquantum, whom I seized upon, they were all of one Nation, but of several parts, and several Families;
This accident must be acknowledged the means under God of putting on foot, and giving life to all our Plantations.”
In 1614, an expedition sailed to map the coast of New England, with Squanto travelingalong as interpreter.
At this time, Squanto was able to return to his tribe of Patuxet.
Later that same year, 1614, Squanto was kidnapped again, along with some other natives, by the wretched Captain Thomas Hunt, who took them to Malaga, Spain, a city notorious for slave trading, begun during its Muslim occupation.
Squanto appears to have been rescued by some Catholic friars, who introduced him to Christianity and gave him his freedom.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges wrote in A briefe relation of the discovery and plantation of New England (1622: London), that Captain Thomas Hunt was able to sell a few natives, but when “friars of those parts” discovered his unscrupulous activity, they took the rest of the natives to be “instructed in the Christian Faith; and so disappointed this unworthy fellow of his hopes of gain.”
The friars gave Squanto his freedom and he made his way to England, where he was hired by John Slaney, treasurer of the Newfoundland Company.
He then worked for Newfoundland Colony Governor John Mason, who was later granted the patent for New Hampshire.
Squanto then worked for Captain Thomas Dermer, an agent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges.
Governor Bradford wrote:
“(Squanto) was a native of these parts, and had been one of the few survivors of the plague hereabouts.
He was carried away with others by one Hunt, a captain of a ship, who intended to sell them for slaves in Spain …”
“(Squanto) got away for England, and was received by a merchant in London, and employed in Newfoundland and other parts, and lastly brought into these parts by a Captain Dermer, a gentleman employed by Sir Ferdinand Gorges …”
In 1619, Squanto was finally able to return to his Patuxet tribe, but sadly found that they had all died in a plague.
As tragic as his kidnapping had been, it may have saved Squanto from dying in that plague.
The plague may have come from survivors of a French ship wrecked at Cape Cod in 1617, as Governor William Bradford:
“About three years before, a French ship was wrecked at Cape Cod, but the men got ashore and saved their lives and a large part of their provisions.
When the Indians heard of it, they surrounded them and never left watching and dogging them
till they got the advantage and killed them, all but three or four, whom they kept,
and sent from one Sachem to another, making sport with them and using them worse than slaves.”
Governor William Bradford wrote:
“Captain Thomas Dermer had been here the same year that the people of the Mayflower arrived, as appears in an account written by him, and given to me by a friend, bearing date, June 30th, 1620 …
‘I will first begin,’ says he, ‘with the place from which Squanto (or Tisquantem) was taken away, which in Captain John Smith’s map is called ‘Plymouth’; and I would that Plymouth (England) had the same commodities.
I could wish that the first plantation might be situated here, if there came to the number of fifty persons or upward; otherwise at Charlton, because there the savages are less to be feared …'”
Bradford quoted Captain Thomas Dermer further:
“The Pokanokets (Patuxet), who live to the west of Plymouth, bear an inveterate hatred to the English …
For this reason Squanto cannot deny but they would have killed me when I was at Namasket, had he not interceded hard for me.'”
Bradford mentioned another native:
“Another Indian, called Hobbamok came to live with them, a fine strong man, of some account amongst the Indians for his valor and qualities.
He remained very faithful to the English till he died.
He and Squanto having gone upon business among the Indians, a Sachem called Corbitant … began to quarrel with them, and threatened to stab Hobbamok;
but he being a strong man, cleared himself of him, and came running away, all sweating, and told the Governor what had befallen him, and that he feared they had killed Squanto …
… So it was resolved to send the Captain and fourteen men, well armed … The Captain, giving orders to let none escape, entered to search for him.
But Corbitant had gone away that day; so they missed him, but learned that Squanto was alive, and that Corbitant had only threatened to kill him, and made as if to stab him, but did not.”
Governor William Bradford wrote the sad account of Squanto’s death in LATE SEPTEMBER 1622:
“After this, on the 18th of September, they sent out their shallop (small sailboat) with ten men and Squanto as guide and interpreter to the Massachusetts, to explore the bay and trade with the natives, which they accomplished, and were kindly received …
… Captain Standish was appointed to go with them, and Squanto as a guide and interpreter, about the LATTER END OF SEPTEMBER;
but the winds drove them in; and putting out again, Captain Standish fell ill with fever, so the Governor (Bradford) went himself.
But they could not get round the shoals of Cape Cod, for flats and breakers, and Squanto could not direct them better.
The captain of the boat dare not venture any further, so they put into Manamoick Bay, and got what they could there …”
“Here Squanto fell ill of Indian fever, bleeding much at the nose, which the Indians take for a symptom of death, and within a few days he died.
He begged the Governor to pray for him, that he might go to the Englishmen’s God in Heaven, and bequeathed several of his things to some of his English friends, as remembrances.
His death was a great loss.”
As half of the Pilgrims died that first winter, there was the real possibility that they would not have survived another, had it not been for Squanto. Governor Bradford acknowledged:
“Squanto … was a special instrument sent of God for their good beyond their expectation.”